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Scholarly Research (Featured)

Google Scholar | PubMed

Google Scholar (intro) is a freely accessible web search engine that indexes the full text or metadata of scholarly literature across publishing formats and disciplines. is a research  website open to the public that includes a variety of research topics that might eventually be published on, or are merely being used for background research. This article is about Google Scholar, PubMed and Research Citation, and is a pinned article located for convenient access at the top of the front page of [This is a pinned article; more articles below.]

The Google Scholar index includes most peer-reviewed online academic journals and books, conference papers, theses and dissertations, preprints, abstracts, technical reports, and other scholarly literature, including court opinions and patents.

[ for library news.]

PubMed is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health maintains the database as part of the Entrez system of information retrieval.

From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries. PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching. The PubMed system was offered free to the public in June 1997.

PubMed Citation
Citation information from Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers [Internet]. 2nd edition (public domain on PubMed)

Journal Articles examples ...

1. Standard journal article

Petitti DB, Crooks VC, Buckwalter JG, Chiu V. Blood pressure levels before dementia. Arch Neurol. 2005 Jan;62(1):112-6.
Jun BC, Song SW, Park CS, Lee DH, Cho KJ, Cho JH. The analysis of maxillary sinus aeration according to aging process: volume assessment by 3-dimensional reconstruction by high-resolutional CT scanning. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005 Mar;132(3):429-34.
Meneton P, Jeunemaitre X, de Wardener HE, MacGregor GA. Links between dietary salt intake, renal salt handling, blood pressure, and cardiovascular diseases. Physiol Rev. 2005 Apr;85(2):679-715.

2. Journal article with many authors

Rastan S, Hough T, Kierman A, Hardisty R, Erven A, Gray IC, Voeling S, Isaacs A, Tsai H, Strivens M, Washbourne R, Thornton C, Greenaway S, Hewitt M, McCormick S, Selley R, Wells C, Tymowska-Lalanne Z, Roby P, Mburu P, Rogers D, Hagan J, Reavill C, Davies K, Glenister P, Fisher EM, Martin J, Vizor L, Bouzyk M, Kelsell D, Guenet JL, Steel KP, Sheardown S, Spurr N, Gray I, Peters J, Nolan PM, Hunter AJ, Brown SD. Towards a mutant map of the mouse--new models of neurological, behavioural, deafness, bone, renal and blood disorders. Genetica. 2004 Sep;122(1):47-9.

3. Journal article with optional limit to the number of authors

to 3 authors
Rastan S, Hough T, Kierman A, et al. Towards a mutant map of the mouse--new models of neurological, behavioural, deafness, bone, renal and blood disorders. Genetica. 2004 Sep;122(1):47-9.
Rastan S, Hough T, Kierman A, and others. Towards a mutant map of the mouse--new models of neurological, behavioural, deafness, bone, renal and blood disorders. Genetica. 2004 Sep;122(1):47-9.
to 6 authors
Hallal AH, Amortegui JD, Jeroukhimov IM, Casillas J, Schulman CI, Manning RJ, et al. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography accurately detects common bile duct stones in resolving gallstone pancreatitis. J Am Coll Surg. 2005 Jun;200(6):869-75.
Hallal AH, Amortegui JD, Jeroukhimov IM, Casillas J, Schulman CI, Manning RJ, and others. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography accurately detects common bile duct stones in resolving gallstone pancreatitis. J Am Coll Surg. 2005 Jun;200(6):869-75.

4. Journal article with organization as author

American Diabetes Association. Diabetes update. Nursing. 2003 Nov;Suppl:19-20, 24.
Parkinson Study Group. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of rasagiline in levodopa-treated patients with Parkinson disease and motor fluctuations: the PRESTO study. Arch Neurol. 2005 Feb;62(2):241-8.
Merritt, Hawkins & Associates. 2004 survey of physicians 50 to 65 years old. J Med Assoc Ga. 2004;93(3):21-6.
Institute of Medical Illustrators. Photography of cleft audit patients. J Audiov Media Med. 2004 Dec;27(4):170-4.
Sugarterapias es Onkologiai Szakmai Kollegium. [Methodologic recommendations of the Oncology and Radiotherapy College. Protocol for oncology care. Diagnostic algorithms in the course of patient follow-up]. Magy Onkol. 2004;48(4):339-47. Hungarian.

5. Journal article with organization as author, with subsidiary part of the organization included

American College of Dentists, Board of Regents. The ethics of quackery and fraud in dentistry: a position paper. J Am Coll Dent. 2003;70(3):6-8.
Council of Europe, Steering Committee on Bioethics. Draft additional protocol to the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine, on biomedical research. J Int Bioethique. 2004 Mar;15(1):107-22.

6. Journal article with multiple organizations as author

American Dietetic Association; Dietitians of Canada. Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: nutrition and women's health. J Am Diet Assoc. 2004 Jun;104(6):984-1001.
Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia; Comissao de Infecciologia Respiratoria. [Portuguese Respiratory Society guidelines for the management of community-acquired pneumonia in immunocompetent adults]. Rev Port Pneumol. 2003 Sep-Oct;9(5):435-61. Portuguese.
Polish Neurologic Society; Polish Neurosurgical Society. [Recommendation of the Polish Neurologic Society and the Polish Neurosurgical Society regarding stroke prevention and therapy]. Neurol Neurochir Pol. 2003;37 Suppl 6:3-41. Polish.

7. Journal article with multiple organizations as author, with subsidiary part of the organization included

American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Pediatric Emergency Medicine; American College of Emergency Physicians, Pediatric Committee. Care of children in the emergency department: guidelines for preparedness. Pediatrics. 2001 Apr;107(4):777-81.

8. Journal article with governmental body as author

National Institutes of Health (US). End-of-life care. National Institutes of Health statement on the state of the science. AWHONN Lifelines. 2005 Feb-Mar;9(1):15-22.
United States District Court, S.D. Florida, Miami Division. Greenberg v. Miami Children's Hospital Research Institute. Wests Fed Suppl. 2003;264:1064-78.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US); Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (US). Policy on the inclusion of women and racial and ethnic minorities in externally awarded research; notice. Fed Regist. 1995 Sep 15;60(179):47947-51.
National Institute on Drug Abuse (US); Caribbean Epidemiology Centre; Pan American Health Organization; World Health Organization. Building a collaborative research agenda: drug abuse and HIV/AIDS in the Caribbean 2002-2004. West Indian Med J. 2004 Nov;53 Suppl 4:1-78.

9. Journal article with both a personal author and an organization as author

Orchard TJ, Temprosa M, Goldberg R, Haffner S, Ratner R, Marcovina S, Fowler S; Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. The effect of metformin and intensive lifestyle intervention on the metabolic syndrome: the Diabetes Prevention Program randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2005 Apr 19;142(8):611-9.
Faustini A, Giorgi Rossi P, Perucci CA; Gruppo Regionale Sorveglianza Tossinfezioni. [Impact of guidelines in investigating foodborne disease outbreaks services in Lazio region, Italy]. Epidemiol Prev. 2003 Nov-Dec;27(6):333-9. Italian.
Margulies EH; NISC Comparative Sequencing Program; Maduro VV, Thomas PJ, Tomkins JP, Amemiya CT, Luo M, Green ED. Comparative sequencing provides insights about the structure and conservation of marsupial and monotreme genomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Mar 1;102(9):3354-9.

10. Journal article with a personal author and more than one organization as author

Mulligan K, Zackin R, Clark RA, Alston-Smith B, Liu T, Sattler FR, Delvers TB, Currier JS; AIDS Clinical Trials Group 329 Study Team; National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group (US). Effect of nandrolone decanoate therapy on weight and lean body mass in HIV-infected women with weight loss: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Arch Intern Med. 2005 Mar 14;165(5):578-85.

11. Journal article with a personal author and note on the organization, as recommended by NISO

Orchard TJ, Temprosa M, Goldberg R, Haffner S, Ratner R, Marcovina S, Fowler S. The effect of metformin and intensive lifestyle intervention on the metabolic syndrome: the Diabetes Prevention Program randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2005 Apr 19;142(8):611-9. Authors are members of the Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group.

12. Journal article authors with designations of rank within a family

King JT Jr, Horowitz MB, Kassam AB, Yonas H, Roberts MS. The short form-12 and the measurement of health status in patients with cerebral aneurysms: performance, validity, and reliability. J Neurosurg. 2005 Mar;102(3):489-94.
Coats DK, Stager DR Sr, Beauchamp GR, Stager DR Jr, Mazow ML, Paysse EA, Felius J. Reasons for delay of surgical intervention in adult strabismus. Arch Ophthalmol. 2005 Apr;123(4):497-9.
Pendergast D, Mollendorf J, Zamparo P, Termin A 2nd, Bushnell D, Paschke D. The influence of drag on human locomotion in water. Undersea Hyperb Med. 2005 Jan-Feb;32(1):45-57.
Infram JJ 3rd. Speaking of good health. Tenn Med. 2005 Feb;98(2):53.
Bennett KE, Beaty BJ, Black WC 4th. Selection of D2S3, an Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) strain with high oral susceptibility to Dengue 2 virus and D2MEB, a strain with a midgut barrier to Dengue 2 escape. J Med Entomol. 2005 Mar;42(2):110-9.

13. Journal article authors with compound last names (give as found in the article)

Bruno-Ambrosius K, Yucel-Lindberg T, Twetman S. Salivary buffer capacity in relation to menarche and progesterone levels in saliva from adolescent girls: a longitudinal study. Acta Odontol Scand. 2004 Oct;62(5):269-72.
Fuentes Ramirez M, Lopez Moreno S. [Social health research: recent communications in Salud Publica de Mexico]. Salud Publica Mex. 2005 Jan-Feb;47(1):5-7. Spanish.
Mier y Teran J. [An interview of Salud Publica de Mexico with Dr. Jaime Mier y Teran, Ministry of Health of Tabasco]. Salud Publica Mex. 2005 Jan-Feb;47(1):78-82. Spanish.
Halley des Fontaines V. [The public health law of August 2004 between public responsibility and private collaboration]. Sante Publique. 2004 Dec;16(4):613-5. French.

14. Journal article author names with particles, prepostitions, prefixes (give as found in the article)

O'Neill GM, Catchpoole DR, Golemis EA. From correlation to causality: microarrays, cancer, and cancer treatment. Biotechniques. 2003 Mar;Suppl:64-71.
MacGregor RJ. A functional view of consciousness and its relations in brain. J Integr Neurosci. 2004 Sep;3(3):253-66.
Lee CH, Macgregor PF. Using microarrays to predict resistance to chemotherapy in cancer patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2004 Sep;5(6):611-25.
DeWolf WC, Gaston SM. The cell cycle and its relevance to the urologist. J Urol. 2004 Apr;171(4):1674-81.
De Wolf H, Blust R, Backeljau T. The use of RAPD in ecotoxicology. Mutat Res. 2004 May;566(3):249-62.
de Pouvourville G, Ulmann P, Nixon J, Boulenger S, Glanville J, Drummond M. The diffusion of health economics knowledge in Europe: The EURONHEED (European Network of Health Economics Evaluation Database) project. Pharmacoeconomics. 2005;23(2):113-20.
Hashim DS, Al Kubaisy W, Al Dulayme A. Knowledge, attitudes and practices survey among health care workers and tuberculosis patients in Iraq. East Mediterr Health J. 2003 Jul;9(4):718-31.
Abou Shabana K, el-Shiek M, el-Nazer M, Samir N. Women's perceptions and practices regarding their rights to reproductive health. East Mediterr Health J. 2003 May;9(3):296-308.
Cowper SE, Bucala R, LeBoit PE. Case 35-2004: nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy. N Engl J Med. 2005 Apr 21;352(16):1723-4; author reply 1723-4.
van Wamel A, Bouakaz A, Bernard B, ten Cate F, de Jong N. Controlled drug delivery with ultrasound and gas microbubbles. J Control Release. 2005 Jan 3;101(1-3):389-91.
Versantvoort CH, Oomen AG, Van de Kamp E, Rompelberg CJ, Sips AJ. Applicability of an in vitro digestion model in assessing the bioaccessibility of mycotoxins from food. Food Chem Toxicol. 2005 Jan;43(1):31-40.

15. Journal article authors with romanized names

Nyporko AIu, Demchuk ON, Blium IaB. [Analysis of structural characteristics of alpha-tubulins in plants with enhanced cold tolerance]. Tsitol Genet. 2003 Nov-Dec;37(6):3-11. Russian.
Ni H, Qing D, Kaisa S, Lu J. [The study on the effect of LBP on cleaning hydroxygen free radical by EPR technique]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2004 Aug;27(8):599-600. Chinese.

16. Journal article with no author provided

Pelvic floor exercise can reduce stress incontinence. Health News. 2005 Apr;11(4):11.
Drug-resistance tuberculosis among the foreign-born in Canada. Can Commun Dis Rep. 2005 Feb 15;31(4):46-52. English, French.

17. Journal article with author affiliation included (give the affiliation of only the first author or all authors)

Patterson F (Department of Psychology, City University, London EC1V 0HB.,Ferguson E, Norfolk T, Lane P. A new selection system to recruit general practice registrars: preliminary findings from a validation study. BMJ. 2005 Mar 26;330(7493):711-4.
Mahmutyazicioglu K (Department of Radiology, Zonguldak Karaelmas University School of Medicine, Kozlu Zonguldak, Turkey), Ogawa T (Department of Radiology, Tottori University School of Medicine,Yonago, Japan). Remote effect of optic tract trauma in the occipital lobe (case report). Diagn Interv Radiol. 2005 Mar;11(1):19-22.
Pinet LM (Departamento de Servicios de Salud de Emergencia, Escuela de Posgrado, Universidad de Maryland, Condado de Baltimore, USA. [Prehospital emergency care in Mexico City: the opportunities of the healthcare system]. Salud Publica Mex. 2005 Jan-Feb;47(1):64-71. Spanish.
Benyahia B (Federation de Neurologie Mazarin, Hopital de la Salpetriere, Paris, France), Carpentier AF, Delattre JY. [Antineuron antibodies and paraneoplastic neurological syndromes]. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2003 Apr;159(4):463-5. French.

18. Journal article in a language other than English

in a roman alphabet
Berrino F, Gatta G, Crosignani P. [Case-control evaluation of screening efficacy]. Epidemiol Prev. 2004 Nov-Dec;28(6):354-9. Italian.
Bechade D, Desrame J, Raynaud JJ, Algayres JP. [Oesophageal ulcer associated with the use of bacampicillin]. Presse Med. 2005 Feb 26;34(4):299-300. French.
in a non-roman alphabet
Zhao L, Li H, Han D. [Effects of intestinal endotoxemia on the development of cirrhosis in rats].Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi. 2001 Jul;9 Suppl:21-3. Chinese.
Paroussis D, Papaoutsopoulou C. [Porcelain laminate veneers (HI-ERAM)]. Odontostomatol Proodos. 1990 Dec;44(6):423-6. Greek.

19. Journal article in a language other than English with optional original language title included

Calera Rubio AA, Roel Valdes JM, Casal Lareo A, Gadea Merino R, Rodrigo Cencillo F. Riesgo quimico laboral: elementos para un diagnostico en Espana [Occupational chemical risk: elements for a diagnostic in Spain]. Rev Esp Salud Publica. 2005 Mar-Apr;79(2):283-95. Spanish.

20. Journal article published in two equal languages

Warnock GL. Quality care is job one = Les soins de qualite font du chemin. Can J Surg. 2005 Feb;48(1):6-8. English, French.
Picozzi G, Paci E, Lopez Pegna A, Bartolucci M, Roselli G, De Francisci A, Gabrielli S, Masi A, Villari N, Mascalchi M. Screening della neoplasia polmonare con TC spirale a bassa dose. Risultati di uno studio pilota triennale e disegno dello studio clinico randomizzato ''Italung-CT'' = Screening of lung cancer with low dose spiral CT: results of a three year pilot study and design of the randomised controlled trial ''Italung-CT''. Radiol Med (Torino). 2005 Jan-Feb;109(1-2):17-26. Italian, English.

21. Journal article published in multiple languages

Mittelmark MB, Lamarre MC. The IUHPE's response to the Tsunami disaster. Promot Educ. 2004;11(4):203, 222, 237. English, French, Spanish.
Colombo C. [How "Spanish flu" is not recognized]. Krankenpfl Soins Infirm. 2006;99(6):10-4, 40-3, 62-4. German, French, Italian.

22. Journal article title beginning with a lower case letter

Yao S, Zhang Y, Li J. c-jun/AP-1 activation does not affect the antiproliferative activity of phenethyl isothiocyanate, a cruciferous vegetable-derived cancer chemopreventive agent. Mol Carcinog. 2006 Aug;45(8):605-12.
Sun Y. p53 and its downstream proteins as molecular targets of cancer. Mol Carcinog. 2006 Jun;45(6):409-15.

23. Journal article title with special characters

Greek letters may be written out if special fonts are not available
Guan M, Chen Y. Aberrant expression of ΔNp73 in benign and malignant tumours of the prostate: correlation with Gleason score. J Clin Pathol. 2005 Nov;58(11):1175-9.
may become
Guan M, Chen Y. Aberrant expression of DeltaNp73 in benign and malignant tumours of the prostate: correlation with Gleason score. J Clin Pathol. 2005 Nov;58(11):1175-9.
Bell RP, Verdijk D, Relou M, Smith D, Regeling H, Ebbers EJ, Leemhuis FM, Oniciu DC, Cramer CT, Goetz B, Pape ME, Krause BR, Dasseux JL. α-cycloalkyl-substituted ω-keto-dicarboxylic acids as lipid regulating agents. Bioorg Med Chem. 2005 Jan 3;13(1):223-36.
may become
Bell RP, Verdijk D, Relou M, Smith D, Regeling H, Ebbers EJ, Leemhuis FM, Oniciu DC, Cramer CT, Goetz B, Pape ME, Krause BR, Dasseux JL. alpha-cycloalkyl-substituted omega-keto-dicarboxylic acids as lipid regulating agents. Bioorg Med Chem. 2005 Jan 3;13(1):223-36.
Superscripts/subscripts may be enclosed in parentheses as regular type if special fonts are not available
Paluchowska MH, Charakchieva-Minol S, Tatarczynska E, Klodzinska A, Stachowicz K, Chojnacka-Wojcik E. New 4-[ω-(diarylmethylamino)alkyl]- and 4-[ω-(diarylmethoxy)alkyl]-1-arylpiperazines as selective 5-HT1A/5-HT2A receptor ligands with differentiated in vivo activity. Pol J Pharmacol. 2004 Nov-Dec;56(6):743-54.
may become
Paluchowska MH, Charakchieva-Minol S, Tatarczynska E, Klodzinska A, Stachowicz K, Chojnacka-Wojcik E. New 4-[omega-(diarylmethylamino)alkyl]- and 4-[omega-(diarylmethoxy)alkyl]-1-arylpiperazines as selective 5-HT(1A)/5-HT(2A) receptor ligands with differentiated in vivo activity. Pol J Pharmacol. 2004 Nov-Dec;56(6):743-54.

24. Journal article with type of article indicated

Zhang Y, Griendling KK, Taylor WR. A critical role for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in neointima formation induced by carotid ligation [abstract]. Circulation. 2004 Oct 26;110(17 Suppl):III-259. Abstract no. 1238.
Jackson B, Fleming T. A drug is effective if better than a harmless control [letter]. Nature. 2005 Apr 28;434(7037):1067.
Gayer T, Hahn RW. Regulating mercury: what's at stake? [letter]. Science. 2005 Jul 8;309(5732):244-5.
Kardel T. [Can a physician pay too many visits? (letter)]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2005 Jun 13;167(24):2666. Danish.
Flegel K. Biographies of healers [book review]. CMAJ. 2007 Jul 3;177(1):70.

25. Journal title consisting of a single word

Bryant BJ, Alperin JB, Indrikovs AJ. Blood bank on-call physician's experiences at a large university medical center. Transfusion. 2005 Jan;45(1):35-40.

26. Journal title in a character-based language

Itabashi M, Yoshida K, Kameoka S. [Sentinel node navigation surgery for colorectal cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 2005 Apr;32(4):557-60. Japanese.
Li YJ, He X, Liu LN, Lan YY, Wang AM, Wang YL. [Studies on chemical constituents in herb of Polygonum orientale]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005 Mar;30(6):444-6. Chinese.

27. Journal title with an edition

Fisher ML, Balke CW, Freudenberger R. Therapeutic options in advanced heart failure. Hosp Pract (Off Ed). 1997 Dec 15;32(12):97-106.
Pekcan O, Kara S. Cation effect on thermal transition of iota-carrageenan: a photon transmission study. J Biomater Sci (Polym Ed). 2005;16(3):317-33.

28. Journal title with city of publication added after the title for clarification

Lillehei KO, Simon J, Gaspar L, Damek DM. Non-small-cell lung cancer with brain metastasis. Oncology (Williston Park). 2004 Dec;18(14):1725-8.

29. Journal article with year having a special number

Scott JD. The protease inhibitor drugs. Posit Aware. 2005 Winter;Spec No:16-9.
Mar Molinero F, Ramos Amador JT, Sanchez Diaz JI. Terapeutica antimicrobiana en las infecciones respiratorias de vias bajas [Antibacterial therapy in lower respiratory tract infections]. An Esp Pediatr. 1997 Jun;Spec No 2:207-8. Spanish.

30. Journal article with year having a supplement

Beyond menopause. Life after estrogen. Mayo Clin Health Lett. 2005 Feb;Suppl:1-8.
Draghici S, Khatri P, Shah A, Tainsky MA. Assessing the functional bias of commercial microarrays using the onto-compare database. Biotechniques. 2003 Mar;Suppl:55-61.

31. Journal article with year with supplement having a further division

Kenney JT Jr. The pharmacy director's view of the implications of dose escalation. Manag Care Interface. 2004;Suppl A:9-10.
Doherty DE, Briggs DD Jr. Long-term nonpharmacologic management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Clin Cornerstone. 2004;Suppl 2:S29-34.

32. Journal article with year having a named supplement

New measurement methods require reassessment of WHO criteria. Diagn Imaging (San Franc). 1998 Nov;Suppl Bone Mass:7.

33. Journal article with year having a part

Ophthalmology sourcebook & reference guide 1990. Ophthalmology. 1990 Sep;(Pt 2):1-145.
Sanders G, Hesse A, Leusmann DB. Experimental investigation of the genesis of struvite stones in cats. Scan Electron Microsc. 1986;(Pt 4):1713-20.

34. Journal article with season included in date

Swan T. Current challenges in hepatitis C. Res Initiat Treat Action. 2004 Fall;10(2):17-20.
Hilgers K, Ramer P. Forced medication of defendants to achieve trial competency: an update on the law after Sell. Georget J Leg Ethics. 2004 Summer;17(4):813-26.
Hesperian Foundation; Program for Appropriate Technology in Health PATH. Cancer of the cervix: a training guide to promote awareness. Hesperian Found News. 1997 Spring-Summer;Suppl:1-4.

35. Journal article with multiple years of publication

Legge A. Children in need. Nurs Times. 2002 Dec 17-2003 Jan 6;98(51):40-1.
Spencer P, Zakaib G, Winter E. The risks of reuse: legal implications for hospitals of reusing single-use medical devices. Hosp Q. 2001-2002 Winter;5(2):68-70.
Vagg L, Taylor O, Riley M, Palma S, Halliday J. Validation of the Victorian Perinatal Morbidity Statistics form: new items, pre-coded text and free text. Health Inf Manag. 1999-2000;29(3):118-22.
Martin H, Rushforth P. The big bang approach to health reform: an update from the Calgary Regional Health Authority. Hosp Q. 1998-1999 Winter;2(2):43-50.

36. Journal article with multiple months of publication

Clark P, Lavielle P, Duarte C. Patient ratings of care at a rheumatology out-patient unit. Arch Med Res. 2004 Jan-Feb;35(1):82-6.
Fleming J, Chetty M. Psychotropic drug interactions with valproate. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2005 Mar-Apr;28(2):96-101.
Flanagan M. One nurse's story. Prairie Rose. 2005 Feb-Apr;74(1):8.
Lacasse Y, Beaudoin L, Rousseau L, Maltais F. Randomized trial of paroxetine in end-stage COPD. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis. 2004 Jul-Sep;61(3):140-7.
Morris D, Turnbull P. Dyslexia. Br J Nurs. 2005 Jan 27-Feb 9;14(2):63.

37. Journal article with multiple days of publication

Townsend E, Griffiths G, Rocker M, Winter R, Lewis M. Setting up a screening service for abdominal aortic aneurysm. Nurs Times. 2005 Feb 1-7;101(5):36-8.
Jootun D, MacInnes A. Examining how well students use correct handling procedures. Nurs Times. 2005 Jan 25-31;101(4):38-40.

38. Journal article volume with supplement

El Shehaby A, Ganz JC, Reda WA, Hafez A. Temporary symptomatic swelling of meningiomas following gamma knife surgery. Report of two cases. J Neurosurg. 2005 Jan;102 Suppl:293-6.
Lee A, Chan EC, Ho M, Wong WS, Ng PP. The importance of needs assessment in planning health promoting schools initiatives: comparison of youth risk behaviours of two districts in Hong Kong. Asia Pac J Public Health. 2004;16 Suppl:S7-11.

39. Journal article volume with supplement with further division

Tolosa E, Valldeoriola F. Mid-stage parkinsonism with mild motor fluctuations. Clin Neuropharmacol. 1994;17 Suppl 2:S19-31.
Shortliffe LM, McCue JD. Urinary tract infection at the age extremes: pediatrics and geriatrics. Am J Med. 2002 Jul 8;113 Suppl 1A:55S-66S.
Black HR. Evaluation of the elderly hypertensive. Geriatrics. 1989 Oct;44 Suppl B:15-9.

40. Journal article volume with supplement with part

Veselko M, Kastelec M. Inferior patellar pole avulsion fractures: osteosynthesis compared with pole resection. Surgical technique. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005 Mar;87 Suppl 1 Pt 1:113-21.
Brosen K, Gram LF, Sindrup S, Skjelbo E, Nielsen KK. Pharmacogenetics of tricyclic and novel antidepressants: recent developments. Clin Neuropharmacol. 1992;15 Suppl 1 Pt A:80A-81A.

41. Journal article volume with named supplement

4th Congress of the European Haematology Association. Barcelona, Spain, June 9-12, 1999. Abstracts. Haematologica. 1999 Jun;84 Abstr Suppl:1-285.
Cattaneo M, Mannucci PM. Current status of non-transfusional haemostatic agents. Haematologica. 1999 Jun;84 Suppl EHA-4:120-3.

42. Journal article volume with part

Neulander E, Rivera I, Wajsman Z. The role of the simple cystectomy in urologic surgery. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2003;539(Pt A):535-47.
Garcia R, Yuqiu J, Schabtach E, Bustamante C. Deposition and imaging of metal-coated biomolecules with the STM. Ultramicroscopy. 1992 Jul;42-44(Pt B):1250-4.
Hoffer A, Youngren VR. Is free association still at the core of psychoanalysis? Int J Psychoanal. 2004 Dec;85(Pt 6):1489-92.
Erickson D, Fujimura O, Pardo B. Articulatory correlates of prosodic control: emotion and emphasis. Lang Speech. 1998 Jul-Dec;41(Pt 3-4):399-417.
Afsar AJ, Patel S, Woods RL, Wykes W. A comparison of visual performance between a rigid PMMA and a foldable acrylic intraocular lens. Eye. 1999 Jun;13(Pt 3a):329-35.

43. Journal article volume with part with supplement

Claridge KG, Francis PJ, Bates AK. Should second eye cataract surgery be rationed? Eye. 1995;9(Pt 6 Suppl):47-9.
15th International Cancer Congress. Hamburg, August 16-22, 1990. Part II: Lecture abstracts. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 1990;116(Pt 2 Suppl):773-1252.

44. Journal article volume with special number

Rico G, Kretschmer RR. The monocyte locomotion inhibitory factor (MLIF) produced by axenically grown Entamoeba histolytica fails to affect the locomotion and the respiratory burst of human eosinophils in vitro. Arch Med Res. 1997;28 Spec No:233-4.
Auriacombe L, Pedroni E, Kachaner J, Mandel C, Sidi D. [Aptitude for sports in children operated on for aortic coarctation. Contribution of the exercise test]. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss. 1989 Aug;82 Spec No 2:13-6. French.

45. Journal article with multiple volume numbers

Bakonyi G, Nagy P, Kadar I. Long-term effects of heavy metals and microelements on nematode assemblage. Toxicol Lett. 2003 Apr 11;140-141:391-401.

46. Journal article with volume without issue

Prokai-Tatrai K, Prokai L. Modifying peptide properties by prodrug design for enhanced transport into the CNS. Prog Drug Res. 2003;61:155-88.

47. Journal article with volume in a new series

Hughes JA, Brazeau GA. Genetically engineered vaccines. Am Pharm. 1995 Dec;NS35(12):9-10.

48. Journal article issue with name instead of number

Picardi E, Regina TM, Brennicke A, Quagliariello C. REDIdb: the RNA editing database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007 Jan;35(Database issue):D173-7.

49. Journal article issue with supplement

Crawford M, Mullan J, Vanderveen T. Technology and safe medication administration. J Infus Nurs. 2005 Mar-Apr;28(2 Suppl):37-41.
Fabregas B. [Ethics and gerontology. The dialyzed elderly patient: until when? For what terminal goals?]. Soins. 2003 Oct;(679 Suppl):18. French.

50. Journal article issue with supplement with further division

Montserrat E. Rituximab in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Semin Oncol. 2003 Feb;30(1 Suppl 2):34-9.
Ng AK, Hickey G, Li S, Neuberg D, Mauch PM. A randomized phase II trial of amifostine for head and neck irradiation in lymphoma. Semin Oncol. 2004 Dec;31(6 Suppl 18):20-4.
Ferguson JJ, Douglas JS, Holmes DR, Roubin GS, Smith KM. Angiography and interventional cardiology. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004 Jul 21;44(2 Suppl A):13A-15A.

51. Journal article issue with supplement with part

Abstracts of the 41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO). May 13-17, 2005. Orlando, Florida, USA. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Jun 1;23(16 Suppl Pt 1):1s-1087s.

52. Journal article issue with named supplement

Leifer BP. Early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: clinical and economic benefits. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003 May;51(5 Suppl Dementia):S281-8.

53. Journal article issue with part

Menter A. Pharmacokinetics and safety of tazarotene. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000 Aug;43(2 Pt 3):S31-5.
Fukuzawa M, Oguchi S, Saida T. Kaposi's varicelliform eruption of an elderly patient with multiple myeloma. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000 May;42(5 Pt 2):921-2.
Arouh S, Levine H. Nutrient chemotaxis suppression of a diffusive instability in bacterial colony dynamics. Phys Rev E Stat Phys Plasmas Fluids Relat Interdiscip Topics. 2000 Jul;62(1 Pt B):1444-7.
Gosse P, Jullien V, Jarnier P, Lemetayer P, Clementy J. Reduction in arterial distensibility in hypertensive patients as evaluated by ambulatory measurement of the QKD interval is correlated with concentric remodeling of the left ventricle. Am J Hypertens. 1999 Dec;12(12 Pt 1-2):1252-5.

54. Journal article issue with part with supplement

Baxter CR. Foreword: comments on critical pathways. J Burn Care Rehabil. 1995;16(2 Pt 2 Suppl):189.
Wiatrak BJ, Wiatrak DW, Broker TR, Lewis L. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis: a longitudinal study comparing severity associated with human papilloma viral types 6 and 11 and other risk factors in a large pediatric population. Laryngoscope. 2004 Nov;114(11 Pt 2 Suppl 104):1-23.

55. Journal article issue with special number

Muller H, Scott R, Weber W, Meier R. Colorectal cancer: lessons for genetic counselling and care for families. Clin Genet. 1994 Jul;46(1 Spec No):106-14.
Brander VA, Hinderer SR, Alpiner N, Oh TH. Rehabilitation in joint and connective tissue diseases. 3. Limb disorders. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1995 May;76(5 Spec No):S47-56.

56. Journal article with multiple issue numbers

Miller NB, Smerglia VL, Bouchet N. Women's adjustment to widowhood: does social support matter? J Women Aging. 2004;16(3-4):149-67.
Adams TB, Smith RL. Issues and challenges in the safety evaluation of food flavors. Toxicol Lett. 2004 Apr 1;149(1-3):209-13.
Rattan KN, Budhiraja S, Pandit SK, Solanki RS, Sen R, Sen J. Caudal duplication--a case report. Pediatr Surg Int. 2000;16(5-6):445-6.
Kongbangkerd A, Kopf A, Allacher P, Wawrosch C, Kopp B. Micropropagation of squill (Charybdis numidica) through nodule culture. Plant Cell Rep. 2005 Mar;23(10-11):673-7.

57. Journal article with an issue without a volume

Shul'gina GI, Ziablitseva EA. [Effect of the GABA derivative phenibut on learning]. Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk. 2005;(2):35-40. Russian.
Abidov AM, Saiitkulov AM. [Treatment of disorders in interferon status of patients with urogenital chlamydial infection]. Lik Sprava. 2003 Apr-Jun;(3-4):81-4. Russian.

58. Journal article with no volume or issue

AACN national study reports important critical pathways findings. AACN News. 1995 Jul:5.
Schwartz-Cassell T. Feeding assistants: based on logic or way off base? Contemp Longterm Care. 2005 Jan:26-8.

59. Journal article with page numbers including a letter

letter preceding the page numbers
Siedenburg J, Perry I, Stuben U. Tropical medicine and travel medicine: medical advice for aviation medical examiners concerning flight operations in tropical areas. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2005 Mar;76(3 Suppl):A1-30.
Barrett CJ, Malpas SC. Problems, possibilities, and pitfalls in studying the arterial baroreflexes' influence over long-term control of blood pressure. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005 Apr;288(4):R837-45.
Guo X, Lu X, Kassab GS. Transmural strain distribution in the blood vessel wall. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005 Feb;288(2):H881-6.
Staiano S. Trial--unknown accused--defense warranty. Forensic Sci Int. 2004 Dec 2;146 Suppl:S221-2.
Hafeez A, Mehmood G, Mazhar F. Oral zinc supplementation in pregnant women and its effect on birth weight: a randomised controlled trial. Arch Dis Child (Fetal Neonatal Ed). 2005 Mar;90(2):F170-1.
letter following the page numbers
Hop LT, Berger J. Multiple micronutrient supplementation improves anemia, micronutrient nutrient status, and growth of Vietnamese infants: double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Nutr. 2005 Mar;135(3):660S-665S.
Coltorti M. [The pharmacological therapy of intrahepatic cholestasis]. Ann Ital Med Int. 1993 Oct;8 Suppl:41S-47S. Italian.
Stern RA, Nevels CT, Shelhorse ME, Prohaska ML, Mason GA, Prange AJ Jr. The use of T3 to enhance the effects of ECT. Clin Neuropharmacol. 1992;15 Suppl 1 Pt A:387A-388A.

60. Journal article with roman numerals for page numbers (upper or lower case as found)

Weinstock MA. Public health messages regarding skin cancer. J Invest Dermatol. 2004 Dec;123(6):xvii-xix.
Giger JN. Human genetics: can we really eliminate health disparities. J Natl Black Nurses Assoc. 2003 Jun;14(1):vii-viii.
Shaldon S. Hemodialysis vascular access and peritoneal dialysis access. Preface. Contrib Nephrol. 2004;142:X-XII.
Klyszejko-Stefanowicz L, Gniazdowski M. The birth of biochemistry in Lodz. Acta Biochim Pol. 2003;50(2):V-VIII.

61. Journal article with discontinuous pagination

Fitzgerald-Bocarsly P. Natural interferon-alpha producing cells: the plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Biotechniques. 2002 Oct;Suppl:16-20, 22, 24-9.
Ferguson-Noyes N. Bipolar disorder in children: diagnostic and treatment issues. Adv Nurse Pract. 2005 Mar;13(3):35-6, 38-40, 42.
Assael LA. Should dentists become 'oral physicians'? No, dentistry must remain dentistry. J Am Dent Assoc. 2004 Apr;135(4):439, 441, 443 passim.
Pelletier KR, Astin JA. Integration and reimbursement of complementary and alternative medicine by managed care and insurance providers: 2000 update and cohort analysis. Altern Ther Health Med. 2002 Jan-Feb;8(1):38-9, 42, 44 passim.
Vowden K. Complex wound or complex patient? Strategies for treatment. Br J Community Nurs. 2005 Jun;Suppl:S6, S8, S10 passim.

62. Article on an insert, pages tipped in the issue

Loprinzi C. Follow-up care after breast cancer treatment. Mayo Clin Womens Healthsource. 2004 Sep;8(9):suppl 1-2.
Moore W. Screening. More harm than good? Health Serv J. 2000 Apr 27;110(5702):suppl 3.

63. Journal article with indication that additional text follows it

Hoffmann J, Lenhard A. Psychology has to deal with efferences too. J Mot Behav. 2004 Dec;36(4):384-5, 402-7; discussion 408-17.
Preston BL, Warren RC, Wooten SM, Gragg RD 3rd, Walker B. Environmental health and antisocial behavior: implications for public policy. J Environ Health. 2001 May;63(9):9-19; quiz 33-4.
letter with reply by author
Graham DY, Chan FK. Endoscopic ulcers with low-dose aspirin and reality testing. Gastroenterology. 2005 Mar;128(3):807; author reply 807-8.

64. Journal article with no page number provided

Jerger J. Broadening our horizons. J Am Acad Audiol. 1998 Feb;9(1):[preceding p. 1].
[New nifedipine preparation makes single daily dose possible]. Fortschr Med. 1997 Nov 30;115(33):[following p. 54]. German.
Gearry RB, Cook HB, Burt MJ. Time for gastroscopy. N Z Med J. 2003 Jan 24;116(1168):[1 p.].

65. Journal article that is a retraction notice

Chen C, Li Q. A strict solution for the optimal superimposition of protein structures. Retraction. Acta Crystallogr A. 2004 Nov;60(Pt 6):640. Retraction of: Chen C, Li Q. Acta Crystallogr A. 2004 May;60(Pt 3):201-3.
Bassett D, Morrell JC, Gatto GJ Jr, Bai J, Geisbrecht BV, Hieter P, Gould SJ. Detecting patterns of protein distribution and gene expression in silico. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jan 11;102(2):516. Retraction of: Geraghty MT, Bassett D, Morrell JC, Gatto GJ Jr, Bai J, Geisbrecht BV, Hieter P, Gould SJ. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Mar 16;96(6):2937-42.

66. Journal article retracted

Chen C, Li Q. A strict solution for the optimal superimposition of protein structures. Acta Crystallogr A. 2004 May;60(Pt 3):201-3. Retraction in: Chen C, Li Q. Acta Crystallogr A. 2004 Nov;60(Pt 6):640.
Geraghty MT, Bassett D, Morrell JC, Gatto GJ Jr, Bai J, Geisbrecht BV, Hieter P, Gould SJ. Detecting patterns of protein distribution and gene expression in silico. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Mar 16;96(6):2937-42. Retraction in: Bassett D, Morrell JC, Gatto GJ Jr, Bai J, Geisbrecht BV, Hieter P, Gould SJ. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jan 11;102(2):516.

67. Journal article that is an erratum notice

Scuderi A, Letsou A. Amnioserosa is required for dorsal closure in Drosophila. Dev Dyn. 2005 May;233(1):249. Erratum for: Dev Dyn. 2005 Mar;232(3):791-800.
Colau JC. [Contrary medical references in Gynecology-Obstetrics]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 1997;26(6):650-1. French. Erratum for: J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 1997;26(2):124-30.

68. Journal article having an erratum

Scuderi A, Letsou A. Amnioserosa is required for dorsal closure in Drosophila. Dev Dyn. 2005 Mar;232(3):791-800. Erratum in: Dev Dyn. 2005 May;233(1):249.
Lansac J. [Medical consensus practice guidelines in gynecology-obstetrics]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 1997;26(2):124-30. French. Erratum in: J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 1997;26(6):650-1.

69. Journal article with indication article published electronically before print

Walsh B, Steiner A, Pickering RM, Ward-Basu J. Economic evaluation of nurse led intermediate care versus standard care for post-acute medical patients: cost minimisation analysis of data from a randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2005 Mar 26;330(7493):699. Epub 2005 Mar 9.

70. Journal article with an indication it may be found in PubMed

Amalberti R, Auroy Y, Berwick D, Barach P. Five system barriers to achieving ultrasafe health care. Ann Intern Med. 2005 May 3;142(9):756-64. Cited in: PubMed; PMID 15867408.

71. Journal article with DOI provided

Bhutta ZA, Darmstadt GL, Hasan BS, Haws RA. Community-based interventions for improving perinatal and neonatal health outcomes in developing countries: a review of the evidence. Pediatrics. 2005 Feb;115(2 Suppl):519-617. doi:10.1542/peds.2004-1441.

72. Journal article in a microform

Moore W Jr, Lambert PD. The chromosomes of the Beagle dog. J Hered [microfilm]. 1963 Nov-Dec;54(6):273-6. 1 reel: black & white, negative, 35 mm.
Habibullah CM, Mujahid Ali M, Ishaq M. Dermatoglyphic profiles in duodenal ulcer: further evidence for association. IRCS Med Sci [microfiche]. 1986 Dec;14(2):1227-8. 2 of 2 microfiche: black & white, 4 x 6 in.

73. Journal article accompanied by a videocassette, CD-ROM, or other visual medium

Sathananthan AH, Tarin JJ, Gianaroli L, Ng SC, Dharmawardena V, Magli MC, Fernando R, Trounson AO. Development of the human dispermic embryo. Hum Reprod Update. 1999 Sep-Oct;5(5):553-60. Accompanied by: Video on CD-ROM.
Orchard JW, Alcott E, James T, Farhart P, Portus M, Waugh SR. Exact moment of a gastrocnemius muscle strain captured on video. Br J Sports Med. 2002 Jun;36(3):222-3. Accompanied by: Video available at
Crompton DE, Chinnery PF, Bates D, Walls TJ, Jackson MJ, Curtis AJ, Burn J. Spectrum of movement disorders in neuroferritinopathy. Mov Disord. 2005 Jan;20(1):95-9. Accompanied by: Video available at as an mpg file.
Dale RC, Church AJ, Surtees RA, Thompson EJ, Giovannoni G, Neville BG. Post-streptococcal autoimmune neuropsychiatric disease presenting as paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis. Mov Disord. 2002 Jul;17(4):817-20. Accompanied by: Videocassette available as vol. 17 videotape supplement 2; 51:03 min.
Van Voorhis BJ. In vitro fertilization. N Engl J Med. 2007 Jan 25;356(4):379-86. Accompanied by: Video clip showing ultrasound-guided oocyte retrieval available from

74. CD-ROM published as a supplement to an issue of a journal

9th United European Gastroenterology Week. Amsterdam 2001. Abstracts of presentations [CD-ROM].Gut. 2001 Nov;49(5 Suppl 3):[1 CD-ROM].

75. Other types of notes for journal articles

Harlow BL, Barbieri RL. Influence of education on risk of hysterectomy before age 45 years. Am J Epidemiol. 1999 Oct 15;150(8):843-7. Supported by a Public Health Service grant from the National Institute of Mental Health.
Schrag D, Chung KY, Flombaum C, Saltz L. Cetuximab therapy and symptomatic hypomagnesemia. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005 Aug 17;97(16):1221-4. Paper originally presented at the Gastrointestinal Oncology Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, Hollywood, FL, January 29, 2005.
American Academy of Family Physicians. Information from your family doctor. What you should know about worrying too much. Am Fam Physician. 2006 Mar 15;73(6):1057-8. Patient education handout.
Flegel K. Biographies of healers [book review]. CMAJ. 2007 Jul 3;177(1):70. Review of: Bynum WF, Bynum H, editors. Dictionary of Medical Biography. Westport (CT): Greenwood Press; c2007.
Packman Z, Steen P. The nurses who simplified discharge planning [interview]. Nurs Times. 2007 Oct 16-22;103(42):20-1. Interview by Victoria Hoban.
Heppner HJ, Bauer JM, Sieber CC, Bertsch T. Laboratory aspects relating to the detection and prevention of frailty. Int J Prev Med. 2010 Summer;1(3):149-57. PubMed PMID: 21566784. Authorship note: Heppner HJ and Bauer JM contributed equally.

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